Understanding Machinima, J. Barrett & J. Ng (Eds). London / New York, Continuum Press, pp.63-85
The term "machinima" has been diluted into different practices using different tools (Nitsche 2007), but we argue in this chapter that game-based machinima remains a form of digital puppetry in which the virtual characters in a real-time game engine are used to perform an event and often to tell a story. The players' interactions are translated into the movements and expressions of these virtual puppets in the game environment. In this way, virtual characters turn into digital puppets that can carry out the necessary expressions. From an operational point of view of the usually goal-oriented game design, these characters turn into performative objects. Players-as-producers, a term established by Salen and Zimmerman (2004), thus modify not only the game technology, but also the play procedure to enhance this performative aspect.